Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur

by Alexia Oliveira on 2011

Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition.

An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb:

•Il jette la boule à Jacques. – He throws the ball to Jack.

•Il jette la boule à Marie. – He throws the ball to Mary.

•Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. – He throws the ball to Jack and Mary.

Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her

and to them respectively.

•lui – replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human

•leur – replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human

An example follows:

•Il lui jette la boule. – He throws the ball to him.

•Il lui jette la boule. – He throws the ball to her.

•Il leur jette la boule. – He throws the ball to them.

Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context.

In English, “He throws him the ball” is also said, and means the same thing.

When used with the direct object pronouns le, la, and les, lui and leur come after those pronouns.

•Il la lui jette. – He throws it to him.

Note that while le, la, and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used  to replace innanimate objects and things.

Also note that unlike le and la, which are shortened to l’ when followed by a vowel, lui is never

shortened.

 

http://www.glovico.org/en/french

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To say what city you are from, we use the preposition de.

•Il est de Paris.

When stating your nationality or job, it is not necessary to include the article. This is an exception to

the normal rule.

•Je suis Australien(ne). – I am Australian.

There is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality – for males and females

respectively.

•Il est Australien. – He is Australian.

•Elle est Australienne. – She is Australian.


Countries – Nationalities – Languages in French

Africa Africain(e)
Algeria Algérien(ne) l’arabe, le français
Asia Asiatique
Australia Australien(ne) l’anglais
Belgium Belge le flamand, le français
Brazil Brésilien(ne) le portugais
Canada Canadien(ne) le français, l’anglais
China Chinois(e) le chinois
Egypt Égyptien(ne) l’arabe
England Anglais(e) l’anglais
Europe Européen(ne)
France Français(e) le français
Germany Allemand(e) l’allemand
India Indien(ne) l’hindi (plus many others)
Ireland Irlandais(e) l’anglais, l’irlandais
Italy Italien(ne) l’italien
Japan Japonais(e) le japonais
Mexico Mexicain(e) l’espagnol
Morocco Marocain(e) l’arabe, le français
Netherlands Néerlandais(e) le néerlandais
Poland Polonais(e) le polonais
Portugal Portugais(e) le portugais
Russia Russe le russe
Senegal Sénégalais(e) le français
Spain Espagnol(e) l’espagnol
Switzerland Suisse l’allemand, le français, l’italien
United States Américain(e) l’anglais

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Learning the french verb Faire (to do, to make)

Faire: to do, make

Indicative

Subjunctive

Conditional

Imperative

Present Simple Past Imperfect Future Present Imperfect Present Present
je fais fis faisais ferai fasse fisse ferais
tu fais fis faisais feras fasses fisses ferais fais
il fait fit faisait fera fasse fît ferait
nous faisons fîmes faisions ferons fassions fissions ferions faisons
vous faites fîtes faisiez ferez fassiez fissiez feriez faites
ils font firent faisaient feront fassent fissent feraient

Non-finite forms:

  • Infinitive: faire
  • Present participle: faisant
  • Gerundive: en faisant
  • Verbal adjective: faisant(e)(s)
  • Past participle: fait(e)(s)

Auxiliary verb: avoir

  • défaire, refaire, and satisfaire follow the same pattern.

 

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Learning the Auxiliary verbs in French

by Alexia Oliveira on 2011

Auxiliary verbs

There are two auxiliary verbs in French: avoir (to have) and être (to be), used to conjugate compound tenses according to these rules:

Compound tenses are conjugated with an auxiliary followed by the past participle, ex: j’ai fait (I did), je suis tombé (I fell). When être is used, the participle is inflected according to the gender and number of the subject. The participle is inflected with the use of the verb avoir according to the direct object, but only if the direct object precedes the participle, ex:

  • il a marché, elle a marché, nous avons marché (he walked, she walked, we walked)
  • il est tombé, elle est tombée, nous sommes tombés, elles sont tombées (he fell, she fell, we fell, they (fem.) fell)
  • Il a acheté une voiture. Voilà la voiture qu’il a achetée. (He bought a car. Here is the car he bought)

As stand-alone verbs, the conjugation of the two auxiliaries is listed in the table below:

Avoir

This verb has different stems for different tenses. These are imperfect av- /av/; present subjunctive ai- /ɛ/; future and conditional aur- /ɔʁ/; simple past and past subjunctive e- (not pronounced: eus, eusse are pronounced as bare inflections /y, ys/). Although the stem changes, the inflections of these tenses are as a regular -oir verb.

However, in the simple present, not only are there stem changes, but the inflections are irregular as well:

Avoir “to have”

Indicative

Subjunctive

Conditional

Imperative

Present Simple Past Imperfect Future Present Imperfect Present Present
j’ ai /e/ eus /y/ avais /avɛ/ aurai /ɔʁe/ aie /ɛ/ eusse /ys/ aurais /ɔʁɛ/
tu as /a/ eus /y/ avais /avɛ/ auras /ɔʁa/ aies /ɛ/ eusses /ys/ aurais /ɔʁɛ/ aie* /ɛ/
il/elle a /a/ eut /y/ avait /avɛ/ aura /ɔʁa/ ait /ɛ/ eût /y/ aurait /ɔʁɛ/
nous avons /avɔ̃/ eûmes /ym/ avions /avjɔ̃/ aurons /ɔʁɔ̃/ ayons /ɛjɔ̃/ eussions /ysjɔ̃/ aurions /ɔʁjɔ̃/ ayons* /ɛjɔ̃/
vous avez /ave/ eûtes /yt/ aviez /avje/ aurez /ɔʁe/ ayez /ɛje/ eussiez /ysje/ auriez /ɔʁje/ ayez* /ɛje/
ils/elles ont /ɔ̃/ eurent /yʁ/ avaient /avɛ/ auront /ɔʁɔ̃/ aient /ɛ/ eussent /ys/ auraient /ɔʁɛ/

* Notice that the imperative form uses the subjunctive conjugation.

Non-finite forms:

  • Infinitive: avoir /avwaʁ/
  • Present participle: ayant /ejent/
  • Gerundive: en ayant /an ejent/
  • Verbal adjective: ayant(s) /ejent/, ayante(s) /ejent/
  • Past participle: eu(e)(s) /y/

Auxiliary verb: avoir

Être

This verb has different stems for different tenses. These are all pronounced differently: imperfect ét- /et/; present subjunctive soi- /swa/; future and conditional ser- /s(ə)ʁ/; simple past and past subjunctive in f- /f/. The inflections of these tenses are as a regular -oir verb (that is, as an -re verb but with the vowel u /y/ in the f- forms). For example, subjunctive soyons, soyez is pronounced with the y sound (/swaje/) of other -re and -oir verbs.

However, in the simple present, not only are there stem changes, but the inflections are irregular as well:

Être “to be”

Indicative

Subjunctive

Conditional

Imperative

Present Simple Past Imperfect Future Present Imperfect Present Present
je suis /sɥi/ fus /fy/ étais /etɛ/ serai /s(ə)ʁe/ sois /swa/ fusse /fys/ serais /s(ə)ʁɛ/
tu es /ɛ/ fus /fy/ étais /etɛ/ seras /s(ə)ʁa/ sois /swa/ fusses /fys/ serais /s(ə)ʁɛ/ sois* /swa/
il/elle est /ɛ/ fut /fy/ était /etɛ/ sera /s(ə)ʁa/ soit /swa/ fût /fy/ serait /s(ə)ʁɛ/
nous sommes /sɔm/ fûmes /fym/ étions /etjɔ̃/ serons /səʁɔ̃/ soyons /swajɔ̃/ fussions /fysjɔ̃/ serions /səʁjɔ̃/ soyons* /swajɔ̃/
vous êtes /ɛt/ fûtes /fyt/ étiez /etje/ serez /səʁe/ soyez /swaje/ fussiez /fysje/ seriez /səʁje/ soyez* /swaje/
ils/elles sont /sõ/ furent /fyʁ/ étaient /etɛ/ seront /s(ə)ʁɔ̃/ soient /swa/ fussent /fys/ seraient /s(ə)ʁɛ/

* Notice that the imperative form uses the subjunctive conjugation.

The non-finite forms use the stem êt- /ɛt/ (before a consonant)/ét- /ɛt/ (before a vowel):

  • Infinitive: être
  • Present participle: étant
  • Gerundive: en étant
  • Verbal adjective: étant(e)(s)
  • Past participle: été(e)(s)

Auxiliary verb: avoir

 

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French Verbs – the verb aller

by Alexia Oliveira on 2011

French Verbs – the verb aller

Aller

The verb aller means “to go” and is the only verb with the first group ending “er” to have an irregular conjugation. It belongs to none of the three sections of the third group, and is often categorized on its own. The verb has different stems for different tenses. These are all pronounced differently: past all- /al/ (simple past, imperfect, past subjunctive); present subjunctive aill- /aj/; conditional and future ir- /iʁ/. The inflections of these tenses are completely regular, and pronounced as in any other -er verb. However, in the simple present, not only are there stem changes, but the inflections are irregular as well:

Aller “to go”

Indicative

Subjunctive

Conditional

Imperative

Present Simple Past Imperfect Future Present Imperfect Present Present
je vais /vɛ/ allai /ale/ allais /alɛ/ irai /iʁe/ aille /aj/ allasse /alas/ irais /iʁɛ/
tu vas /va/ allas allais iras ailles allasses irais va
il va /va/ alla allait ira aille allât irait
nous allons /alon/ allâmes allions irons allions allassions irions allons
vous allez /ale/ allâtes alliez irez alliez allassiez iriez allez
ils vont /von/ allèrent allaient iront aillent allassent iraient

The non-finite forms are all based on all- /al/:

  • Infinitive: aller
  • Present participle: allant
  • Gerundive: en allant
  • Verbal adjective: allant(e)(s)
  • Past participle: allé(e)(s)

 

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Grammar of the French Verbs – stems and ending of verbs

by Alexia Oliveira

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by Alexia Oliveira

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French Lessons : Le métro de Paris (the metro – underground)

by Alexia Oliveira

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by Alexia Oliveira

This week, we have seen many different verbs, the infinitives of which and in – er. This is the largest category of French verbs, with literally thousands of “members”. The first conjugation is typified by the verb aimer. It has a few irregularities in the verb root, usually to preserve pronunciation, or due to shifts […]

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by Alexia Oliveira

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by Alexia Oliveira

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French Verbs Rules

by Alexia Oliveira

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French Gender Rules

by Alexia Oliveira

Gender: This is perhaps the major difficulty facing an English speaker: we have to accept the fact that nouns are either masculine or feminine. Each time you learn a new word, learn its gender at the same time.   Remember the following words: le metro (metro) le pont (bridge) le chapeau (hat) le croissant le […]

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Basic Rules for Beginners – Introductions’ Rules

by Alexia Oliveira

Basic Rules for Beginners – Introductions’ Rules French is a quite formal language, and the use of Monsieur and Madame when addressing strangers of almost any age is the rule. Monsieur – Literally “My sir” Madame – Literally “My Lady” For young women, the rule changes and we use “Mademoiselle” instead “Madame”. It is common […]

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Learning French grammar: The rules for understanding how to use the the hyphen

by Alexia Oliveira

Today we will have a look at some French grammar rules! Learning French is easy if you know how. French language, as most of Latin languages, have some particular rules that are very different from English. If you already know some other latin language such as Portuguese, Spanish, Italian or Romanian, you can see that […]

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